G12: Polymeric composites and nanocomposites
The Research Activity of Team 12 – Polymer Composites and Nanocomposites is focused on the development of multifunctional polymer composites and nanocomposites based on synthetic and/or natural polymers and various synthetic and/or natural micro/nano fillers, with low impact on the environment or biodegradable and with improved specific properties, imposed by different applications in industry (automotive and packaging), construction, agriculture and biomedicine. Consequently, the research directions considered are focused, on the one hand, on the characterization, physical or chemical modification and processing of both the components and the resulting (nano)composites, and on the other hand, on the processes for obtaining and interaction mechanisms. The main objectives of Team 12's research are to improve processability and replace, as far as possible, toxic additives and synthetic polymers with materials isolated from natural and renewable resources. In the last 10 years, within national and European projects (FP6, FP7 and Horizon 2020), Team 12 has gained knowledge and experience in developing technologies for obtaining (nano)composites, both based on synthetic polymers (PP, PMMA, thermoplastic elastomer, silicone rubber) with different (nano)fillers (natural nanosilicates, with lamellar or tubular morphology, silica nanowires, natural fibres, nanosilica, calcium metasilicate) as well as based on biopolymers (bio-polyamide, aliphatic polyesters, collagen and cellulose) with different reinforcing agents (graphene and non-graphene 2D structures, cellulose nanofibers), implemented and validated to TRL 5-TRL 9, for the manufacture of: • High quality automotive components (bumper, spare wheel well, B-pillar) • Food packaging • Biomedical products • Protective coatings
Atomic force microscope Multimode 8
Atomic force microscope is designed to the characterization of polymers and polymer nanocomposites surface. AFM investigations provide information on the surface topography, adhesion, morphology (crystalline phase, nanoparticles dispersion) and roughness. PFQNM can generate material property maps at nanolevel.
Equipment for impact testing of polymer composites - HIT 5.5P Pendulum Impact Tester
The Pendulum Impact Tester HIT5.5P can be used for the determination of impact resistance on plastics and other materials. The impact tester can be equipped with accessories for Charpy, Izod, Dynstat, and impact tensile according to the following standards: Charpy: ISO 179-1, ASTM D6110, DIN 50115 Izod: ISO 180, ASTM D256 (notched) and D4812 (without notch) Impact tensile: ISO 8256-A and 8256-B, ASTM D1822 (spec. in head) Dynstat: DIN 53435
Equipment for physico-mechanical characterization, Universal Testing Machine Instron 3382
The Instron 3382 floor model testing system is suited for mechanical characterization of materials in tension, compression, peel and bending (3-Point Bend Flexure) up to 100 kN (22,400 lbf). It meets or exceeds ASTM E4, BS 1610, DIN 51221, ISO 7500/1, EN 10002-2 standards.
Buchi SFS Laboratory Pressure Reactors BuchiGlasUster SFS Reactor #02.5196
SFS Laboratory Pressure Reactor modular-setup: - Coverplate with 4x1⁄4" NPT openings, - Easy interchange of different pressure reactors - Pressure vessels in Borosilicate glass 3.3, Stainless steel for different temperature / pressure ratings, - Reactor volume: 0.50 - 5.0 liter - Temperature control by thermostat with double jacket or electrical heating: - 20 °C to +250 °C - Pressure: -1 (FV) to +6 – 12 bar (glass reactors) / 40 - 100 bar (stainless steel reactors) Chemical reactions, applications: - Polymerization reactor - Chemical synthesis reactor - Catalyst testing / evaluation - Biopolymer research - Nanoparticle synthesis
Differential Scanning Calorimeter DSC Q2000
The Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) determines the temperature and heat flow associated with material transitions as a function of time and temperature. It also provides quantitative and qualitative data on endothermic (heat absorption) and exothermic (heat evolution) processes of materials during physical transitions that are caused by phase changes, melting, oxidation, and other heat-related changes.
Leistritz LSM 30.34
Modular intermeshing co-rotating twin screw extruder for melt mixing and masterbatch obtaining at laboratory scale. It is equipped with: - eight heating zones - seven air-cooled zones - a degassing zone - horizontal dosing feed - forced feeder - can measure the pressure and temperature of the molten material - K-Tron feeder Accessories: die head for strand die, water bath and granulator.
Injection Molding Machine ENGEL ES 40/17 - ES 40/22
Simultaneous DSC-TG Analyser coupled with Mass Spectrometer (SDT-MS) SDT Q600 / ThermoStar TM GSD 301 T
Simultaneous DSC-TGA SDT Q600 is an analysis instrument capable of performing both differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) at the same time. The SDT measures the heat flow and weight changes associated with transitions and reactions in materials over the temperature range ambient to 1500°C. The information provided differentiates endothermic and exothermic events which have no associated weight change (e.g., melting and crystallization) from those which involve a weight change (e.g., degradation). Modes of Operation: - Standard: Ramp / Isothermal - Stepwise Isothermal - Cyclic - Evolved Gas Analysis High Resolution SDT.
Brabender LabStation –System for rheological characterization and melt processing of polymers and composites
Brabender LabStation is a complex system for melt rheology characterization and preparation of composite by melt compounding and extrusion, rolling and film blowing. It has several interchangeable devices such as mixing chambers, double screw extruder, film blowing system and accessories (two roll mill, granulator, conveyor belt, blown film take off unit).
Equipment for testing the Gas Permeability of thermoplastic foils Lyssy Dansensor L100-5000
This instrument is suited for gas permeability testing of thermoplastic based foils, sheets and plates. Reproducibility 1.5 % Standards: meets ASTM D 1434, ISO 2556 Environment temperature: 5 – 40°C
Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer DMA Q800
DMA is used to measure the mechanical properties of a wide range of materials. Many materials, including polymers, behave both like an elastic solid and a viscous fluid, thus the term viscoelastic. DMA measures the viscoelastic properties using either transient or dynamic oscillatory tests. Storage modulus (E'), the elastic component is related to the sample's stiffness and Loss modulus (E'') the viscous component is related to the sample's ability to dissipate mechanical energy through molecular motion. Tan δ is parameter that provides information on the relationship between the elastic and inelastic components.
Thermogravimetric Analyzer TGA Q5000IR
The Thermogravimetric Analyzer measures the amount and rate of weight change in a material, either as a function of increasing temperature, or isothermally as a function of time, in a controlled atmosphere. It can be used to characterize any material that exhibits a weight change and to detect phase changes due to decomposition, oxidation, or dehydration. Modes of Operation: Standard TGA, Hi-Res TGA, Auto Stepwise TGA, Modulated TGA, Evolved Gas Analysis - EGA (TGA/MS and/or TGA/FTIR Operation).
Melt flow indexer LMI 4003
The melt flow indexer LMI 4003 is designed to the characterisation of the melt flow rate of polymers and polymer (nano)composites. The measurements may be done up to 300 °C using the weight loads of 2.16kg, 5kg or 10kg.
Injection Molding Machine ENGEL VC 60/28
Injection unit 60 Dosing path [mm] 100 Diameter of screw Ø20 Max. volume of injection [cm³] 31 Max. screw speed [rot/min] 450 L / D ratio 24 Plasticizing capacity [g/s] 4 Max. injection pressure [bar] 2200 Stroke of nozzle [mm] 230 Number of heating zones, including nozzle [no.] 4 Clamping force [kN] 280 Opening stroke [mm] 400 Height of mould min. [mm] 150 Max distance between mould platens [mm] 550 Max. weight of mould [kg] 600 Number of cooling circuits for the mold 4 Ejector stroke [mm] 100 Ejector force [kN] 40
Platen Press P 200 E
DATA SHEET: - Two platen press with four-column construction and cooling cassette - Nominal platen size 200 × 200 mm; - Hydraulic force 120 kN; - Max specific pressure 312 N/cm2; - Motor power 0.8 kW; - Max operating temperature 300 °C. DESCRIPTION: Laboratory press with automatic cycle, fine adjustable temperature and high force of sealing the mould to ensure the compression molding of micro and nanocomposites with thermoplastic polymer matrices. The press is also designed for the preparation of the films with the thickness of less than 200 µm necessary.
Equipment for the measurement of interfacial properties CAM200
CAM 200 allows the evaluation of hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of the materials surface, surface tension and interfacial adhesion of polymer blends and composites and the effectiveness of the surface treatments of polymers or organic/inorganic (nano) fillers. For the measurement of the contact angle and interfacial/surface tension, the shape of the droplet is analyzed using the captured images.
Nanomechanical testing instrument Hysitron TriboIndenter Premier
The TriboIndenter (TI) Premier makes nanoscale mechanical and tribological characterization simple and consistent. This dedicated system provides a variety of standard nanoscale characterization techniques with unparalleled accuracy and precision. The TI Premier comes with in situ SPM imaging capability and capacitive transducer technology, making the system applicable to the widest range of materials and devices. Motorized staging, top-down color optics, anti-vibration system, environmental enclosure, control software, and fast digital electronics decrease time to results and ease instrument use. The TI Premier offers automated testing routines for increased testing throughput and minimized operator interaction.
Ion-Ebrasu, D., Pollet, B.G., Caprarescu, S., Chitu, A., Trusca, R., Niculescu, V., Gabor, R., Carcadea, E., Varlam, M., Vasile, B.S.
Graphene inclusion effect on anion-exchange membranes properties for alkaline water electrolyzers
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2020
Oprea, M., Panaitescu, D.M., Nicolae, C.A., Gabor, A.R., Frone, A.N., Raditoiu, V., Trusca, R., Casarica, A.
Nanocomposites from functionalized bacterial cellulose and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate)
Polymer Degradation and Stability, Vol 179, September 2020
Ianchis, R., Munteanu, T., Ninciuleanu, C. M., Gifu, I. C., Alexandrescu, E., Somoghi, R., Gabor, A. R., Preda, S., Nistor, C. L., Nitu, S., Petcu, C.
The Effect of Clay Type on the Physicochemical Properties of New Hydrogel Clay Nanocomposites
In: Current Topics in the Utilization of Clay in Industrial and Medical Applications, Mansoor Zoveidavianpoor, IntechOpen
Corobea, M.C., Vuluga, Z., Florea, D., Miculescu, F., Voicu, S.I.
Composites and Nanocomposites Based on Polylactic Acid
Chapter 13, pp. 327-360 in: “Handbook of Composites from Renewable Materials, Nanocomposites : Advanced Applications”, Eds: Thakur V.K., Thakur M.K., Kessler M.R.,Wiley and Scrivener Publishing, 2017
Donescu, D., Corobea, M.C.*, Spataru, C.I., Ghiurea, M.
Polymer carbon nanotubes composites obtained via radical polymerization in water-dispersed media
Chapter 11, pp. 281-305 in: Woodhead Publishing Series in Composites Science and Engineering "Hybrid Polymer Composite Materials Processing" 2017 Elsevier Ltd.